Archibald Reiss Days <p><strong>International Scientific Conference “Archibald Reiss Days“</strong> is organized by the University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies (UCIPS) in Belgrade, in cooperation with the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Serbia, Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, National Police University of China, Volgograd Academy of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, Faculty of Security in Skopje, Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security in Ljubljana, Police Academy “Alexandru Ioan Cuza“ in Bucharest, Academy of Police Force in Bratislava and University of Banja Luka Faculty of Security Science.</p> University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies en-US Archibald Reiss Days THE POSSIBILITIES OF USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES – DRONES IN CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION <p>The progress of science and technology opens up many possibilities for the application of modern devices in various fields including crime scene investigation. New technologies are usually used first for military purposes and later for civilian purposes. The paper will consider the possibilities of applying new technologies in crime scene investigation specially unmanned aerial vehicles, the so-called drones. Namely, many crime scenes can be inaccessible or even dangerous for crime scene investigation such as in cases of placing explosive devices, when it may be uncertain whether there is a danger of new explosions. In these and similar situations devices such as drones could be useful. For the application of these devices in crime scene investigation it is necessary that they have certain characteristics. The paper will present the basic technical characteristics of such devices, as well as possibilities of their application in forensic science and crime scene investigations. Also, the paper will present domestic and comparative legislation that regulates the conditions for the safe use of drones, their registration and the conditions that must be fulfilled by persons using drones. In particular, the normative framework for the use of drones by the police will be analyzed.</p> Ivana Bjelovuk Tanja Kesic Milan Zarkovic Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 / DEVELOPMENT OF LATENT FINGERMARKS ON DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES USING POLYANILINE-BASED POWDER OBTAINED BY SIMPLE PRECIPITATING METHOD <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>Polymeric materials are widely used in various industries and fields, such as vehicle and air industry, medicine, pharmacy and nanotechnology, but still insufficiently investigated in forensic applications. Their specific properties could be of a great significance in forensic trace analysis and they could also gratify the cost-benefit requirements.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methods/Approach: </strong>This paper deals with polyaniline-based polymer powder, obtained by simple precipitating method, with the aim to develop latent fingermarks deposited onto different surfaces, often found at the crime scene.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) analyses confirmed interactions between components of the system. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis suggested that prepared powder has fine, uniform particles, which easily bind to the sweat and lipid fingerprint residues. Prepared powder was also used to visualize latent fingermarks left on different non-porous, semi-porous and porous surfaces, i.e. plywood, glass and paper.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong>Obtained results showed that prepared powder could be used as a substitution for commercially employed fingerprint powders used in everyday forensic practice/trace analysis.</p> Nemanja Vučković Nikola Glođović Nikola Milašinović Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 / MANAGEMENT IN THE PREVENTION OF MALPRACTICE IN ELECTRONIC REFEREEING SYSTEMS IN SPORTS <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>Technologically advanced systems for electronic refereeing decisions in sport have a major use and impact on the game in the 21st century. The purpose of this paper is to discover potential malpractice in the use of these electronic systems, mark the points of potential malpractice and give recommendations on lowering the damage done by tampering the results.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methods/Approach</strong></p> <p>This scientific paper describes a unique approach in the management and prevention of intentional and unintentional,&nbsp;human made errors in the process, with stated technical errors, psychological approach, existing solutions review, given examples and analysis. The authors described a developed,&nbsp;original <em>3D</em> system used in tennis.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong></p> <p>The authors of this paper found the weak points in the electronic system, which can easily be used to manipulate and tamper the results. Malpractice is highly possible to occur, in various steps of the electronic referee process.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong></p> <p>This research paper explains the weak points of the system convenient to fraud, to the general public, especially the spectators and TV audience, that’s not covered in world media. Recommendations are given to minimize the possibility of malpractice. The authors proposed a new, original management algorithm and a malpractice prevention model.</p> Bobana Berjan Bačvarević Dejan Rančić Vladan Borović Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 / ANALYSIS OF DDoS ATTACK DETECTION TECHNIQUES FOR SECURING SOFTWARE-DEFINED NETWORKS <p class="Pa23" style="margin-right: .2pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: black;">Software-Defined Networks (SDN) is an important technology that enables a new approach to how we develop and manage networks. SDN divides the data plane and control plane and supports the logical centralization of network control. However, the centralized <a name="_Hlk107417443"></a>architecture of SDN is also a potential vulnerability for various types of malicious attacks. The paper elaborates on the security aspects of virtualization as a basic concept of SDN architecture. Among the many types of attack, one of the most frequent and destructive are Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. This paper presents an analysis of techniques to detect DDoS attacks in SDN networks. It first describes the SDN architecture and then elaborates on different detection techniques for DDoS attacks. Additionally, this paper emphasizes the types, components, and categories of detection solutions according to the techniques or methods used. The important approaches and those that can answer the complexity of detecting DDoS attacks in SDN are the detection schemes based on entropy and machine learning principles. This paper in general focuses on these two detection techniques and summarizes their benefits and drawbacks and finally provides a guideline for future research directions related to DDoS detection techniques in SDN networks.</span></p> Danijel Čabarkapa Brankica Popović Petar Čisar Kristijan Kuk Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 / POLYGRAPH TEST – WITH OR WITHOUT? <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This paper aims to show the role of the polygraph in detection and evidence. The paper focuses on applying the polygraph in Hungary and takes into account foreign practices. The paper will show the advantages and limitations of the method and how it has evolved over the last 100 years.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methods/Approach:</strong> The paper will primarily review domestic and foreign literature and analyze domestic legal norms. It also illustrates the experience of using polygraphs through case studies.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>: John Larson (USA) first used the modern three-channel polygraph in 1921 in the United States of America. Over the last 100 years, the instrument and the testing methodology have undergone significant changes. The instrument was first used in Hungarian criminal cases in 1978. Initially, the polygraph oriented the investigation, and the test results were not included in the investigation file. Later on, the polygraph test results became part of the investigation file, and there were also court judgments that referred to the polygraph test results as evidence. Nowadays, polygraph examinations are not used as evidence in Hungarian court practice, but there are efforts to make the results of polygraph examinations evidence. The paper wants to demonstrate that it is sufficient for the polygraph to orient the investigation.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> The paper may contribute to changing the way polygraphs are used and perceived. Monitoring changes could be the subject of other papers.</p> <p><strong>About the author: </strong>Police major, associate professor at the Department of Criminal Procedure. He has been researching polygraph for 15 years.</p> Árpád Dr. Budaházi Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 / MOBBING – A HARMFUL PRESENT-DAY PHENOMENON <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>Slovenia introduced harassment at work into its legal system only in 2007. Research from the previous decade has clearly shown the necessity to regulate legislation in this area. The phenomenon of mobbing is becoming more and more common nowadays, so there is a great need for legal order. The phenomenon of mobbing should not be underestimated in any case.</p> <p>Design/Methods/Approach</p> <p>Recent research has shown that due to globalization and growing competitiveness, mobbing is increasingly present in the environment<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Findings </strong></p> <p>The law is well regulated nowadays by new laws and amendments, but the applicability of the provisions has not been fully demonstrated in practice. Despite the legalization of the reversed burden of proof, the process of proving usually contains facts that are too general and consequently easy for the employer to defend from. The jurisprudence has shown that the mere verification of documentation and not the acts themselves does not show the true picture, which also affects the number of jurisdictions in Slovenian courts.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong></p> <p>Mobing is recognized as truly wasteful and socially harmful. The legislation in Slovenia in the field of harassment is appropriate and provides victims of harassment with adequate protection. But any alleged unethical behavior does not constitute illegal behavior (mobbing) Therefore, in assessing whether mobbing takes place in an environment, it is necessary to be precise in stating the facts otherwise the principle of adversarial proceedings is infringed.</p> <p>Keywords: legislation, case law, reverse burden of proof, research.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mojca Rep Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 / TOWARDS HYBRID CONTROL-FLOW AND DATAFLOW ARCHITECTURES <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><strong>Purpose</strong></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 150%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">High performance computing algorithms are often programmed solely for a single type of computer architecture. Some algorithms are more suitable for dataflow architectures, while others are scalable when executed using control-flow architectures. Increasing number of transistors on a single chip die creates the opportunity to combine multiple computing paradigms on a single chip. This allows faster communication between them and therefore faster algorithm execution.</span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 150%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><strong>Design/Methods/Approach</strong></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 150%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">This manuscript advocates for a hybrid control-flow and dataflow architecture on a single chip. Explanation of these architectures is followed by the design of the hybrid processor. The evaluation is based on the simulator of jobs executed on the proposed hybrid processor, dataflow architecture, and control-flow architecture.</span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 150%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><strong>Findings </strong></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 150%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Simulation comparison reveals the acceleration possibilities for certain high performance computing algorithms when executed using the proposed hybrid architecture. This can improve video surveillance in terms of better real-time face recognition, but also in terms of tracking subjects based on video streams from multiple locations, reducing the total power consumption at the same time.</span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 150%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><strong>Originality/Value</strong></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 150%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The proposed computer architecture isn’t commercially available. However, with increasing number of transistors per chip, it is justified to combine existing computing paradigms in order to </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en-US">decrease</span></span></span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> the total processing time of high performance computing algorithms. Future work includes simulating the execution of an artificial intelligence algorithm that requires communication speed between dataflow and control-flow architectures comparable to the speed of modern cache memories to prevent under-utilization of a dataflow </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en-US">hardware</span></span></span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></p> Nenad Korolija Vladisav Jelisavčić Zlatogor Minchev Veljko Milutinović Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 / CHARACTERISTICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CRIMES AS CHALLENGES FOR THEIR DETECTION AND PROVING <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>Environmental crimes have currently become, like no other, a symbol of crimes that are hard to investigate and prove, despite being committed literally every day in our immediate surroundings - on soil, in the air and in water, to humans and to animals. The massive long-term consequences of these crimes and the ongoing technological progress with its implications for flora and fauna, and by this for our immediate preconditions for life, have put them in the centre of attention. Yet, conviction rates are not proportionate to the importance and occurrence of these crimes. Reasons for that can be found in the very features of these offences. The purpose of this paper will therefore be to show and analyze the connection of the characteristics of environmental crimes with the disproportionally low convictions for them, stemming from problems in their detection and later proving.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methods/Approach</strong></p> <p>Doctrinal legal research is combined with statistical data, leading to normative conclusions and recommendations. The paper therefore deals first with the legislative formulations of environmental crimes, their forms and statistics, here in particular from the Republic of Serbia, which will serve as a representative example. Deriving from this initial base, the characteristics of environmental crimes are filtered out and analyzed in the context of their challenging detection and proving.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Findings </strong></p> <p>The variety, heterogeneity and complexity of environmental crimes, their blank legislative formulations, referrals to (or rather dependence on) administrative provisions (regulatory violations), the specific consequences of abstract and concrete endangerment, damage/harm can be underlined as difficulties for prosecution.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong></p> <p>The originality and value of the paper lie in recognizing and extracting the characteristics of environmental crimes that are problematic for their detection and proving, and that hence represent the main factors that influence the low number of convictions or even charges for and reports of these kind of crimes. The practical issues of a high number of unreported cases and challenges for their prosecution have been identified within their normative formations. In addition, those characteristics of environmental crimes can be found in the majority of jurisdictions worldwide and can be described as nearly universal. Therefore, the findings can provide the basis for general suggestions <em>de lege ferenda</em> for environmental crimes, beyond one certain legislation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> environmental crimes, administrative dependence, endangerment, complexity, statistics, Serbia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ivana Marković Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 / SECRET AS AN OBJECT OF CRIMINAL LAW PROTECTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> In this paper the authors seek to provide a specific systematization of some criminal offences within the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia (CC) and the Law on the Protection of Classified Data, recognizing the secret as an object of the criminal offence, followed by a later criminal law analysis of the selected incriminations. The purpose is to explain how the legislator in the Republic of Serbia perceives ,evaluates and treats the secret as a category of criminal law in general, but also as specific kinds, such as a business secret, official secret, state secret, private secret, military secret and secret data (classified data).</p> <p><strong>Design/Methods/Approach: </strong>The paper will be organized in four chapters, besides the introductory remarks and the conclusion. The authors will try to provide a theoretical approach in making specific systematization and normative analysis of the selected criminal offences. The subject of the paper implies the application of the methods of formal logic, such as deduction and induction, the comparative method and the normative method.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The authors deal with the issue of the type and a content of criminal law protection of the secret, but only the secret, &nbsp;excluding secrecy. Due to that, five criminal offences will be the subject of the criminal law analysis: Unauthorized disclosure of a secret, Art. 141 of CC; Disclosure of a trade secret, Art. 240 of CC; Disclosure of a state secret, Art. 316 of CC; Disclosure of an official secret, Art. 369 of CC and Disclosure of a military secret, Art. 415 of CC. A critical&nbsp; analysis of the used authentic interpretation of the legislator will be given in&nbsp; order to divide different ways in defining the secret as a criminal law category.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>Originality is ensured through the implementation of a specific systematization criteria and a critical analysis. The scientific value is reflected in the opening of the problematic issues of the definition of the special forms of secrets as an object of criminal law protection and systematization of such selected incriminations in one place, accompanied by a criminal law analysis.</p> Ivana Bodrožić Mladen Milošević Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 / THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK AGAINST CORRUPTION <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to analyze some of the most important international legal instruments governing the fight against corruption. The existing international legal framework includes international and regional agreements and other legal acts adopted under the auspices of the United Nations, the European Union, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Organization of American States, the African Union and other important international organizations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Design/Methods/Approach</strong></p> <p>Using the comparative, normative, teleological and linguistic method, the author analyzes the main provisions of international legal instruments concerning the use of common terms and definitions of corruption, its prohibition and incrimination, jurisdiction of judicial bodies, determination of legal responsibility, sanctions, monitoring of preventive and other measures, all in order to get a more realistic picture of the functional relationship that exists between the various legal regimes that regulate corruption in the international legal field as one of the most problematic forms of crime in the contemporary world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong></p> <p>The paper finds that there are certain differences between international legal instruments that regulate corruption offenses. This knowledge may be important for further harmonization of the international legal framework on the fight against corruption. This finding can be useful for the consistent incorporation of international anti-corruption standards into national legislation, in order to avoid situations where corrupt acts are treated unequally due to the application of different legal standards at the national level, which may be crucial for their incrimination and punishment especially when corruption acquires transnational characteristics. Thus, for example, by implementing the standards present in the OECD Anti-<em>Bribery Convention</em>, States can opt for a much narrower approach that calls exclusively for the incrimination of so-called “active bribery”. On the other hand, if States implement standards from some other international legal instruments, such as the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption of the Council of Europe, then States will sanction a number of different corrupt activities with their internal legislation. Considering that in modern conditions, corrupt activities are taking more and more forms of transnational organized crime, according to the authors, only institutionalized mechanisms of international police and judicial cooperation can help in their suppression and punishment.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong></p> <p>The scientific value of this paper derives from a comparative legal analysis of the most important international legal instruments and mechanisms used against corruption at the international legal level. The results obtained by the author during the analysis may be important in the implementation of international legal standards on the prevention and punishment of corruption in the domestic legal order. The paper has some original value as it points to the harmful consequences of non-application or inconsistent application of adopted international legal standards on the fight against corruption for social security, good governance and rule of law, which are basic preconditions for developing any democratically stable and economically sustainable societies.</p> Duško Dimitrijević Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 / The online drugs market is a current law enforcement challenge <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The study examines the impact of the Covid 19 pandemic on the online drug market. It is shown that law enforcement in Hungary and around the world has not been adequately prepared to deal with and prosecute the onlineisation of drug trafficking. Law enforcement in legal, organizational, and professional obstacles have been encountered. The key is to identify the nature of these obstacles and plan possible effective responses. This is taken primarily from a criminal procedure perspective.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Given the research objectives, the study will primarily review domestic and foreign literature and analyze domestic legal norms. It is also based on statistical data and research findings from international organizations. In particular, the anomalies related to the principle of "ex officio" and the shortcomings in the legal regulation of parcel services and darknet cryptocurrencies will be analyzed. The analytical and systemic analysis highlights the difficulties in prosecuting online drug trafficking.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>. In the early stages of the pandemic, disruptions in the drug supply chain were a significant price driver. The drug market, opening up to cybercrime and exploiting its potential for its ends, shifted part of its distribution system to delivery by mail order services with less regulated trade. Bulk drug orders are placed in so-called encrypted chat rooms on the darknet and other online platforms in the online drugs market. The delivery services do not record customer data, and payment methods are not documented by the supplier due to the use of cryptocurrencies or cash payments and are therefore untraceable. Investigating authorities must have several legal and organizational options to avoid investigating drug offenses that would otherwise be on the demand side. The Achilles' heel would be to relax the strict principles of "legality" and "ex officio". The legislative change could also improve the effectiveness of detection and evidence by introducing stricter regulation of the activities of courier services.</p> <p><strong>Value:</strong> The results could be helpful for policymakers, crime prevention practitioners, and police management. The study has the potential to inform the broader scientific community about the complex dangers of online drug trafficking. The study can be an essential starting point for further research into new phenomena of a drug crime, particularly to achieve effective law enforcement solutions to online drug trafficking. The paper also points out that the changed circumstances call for new legal and forensic recommendations.</p> Vári Vince Copyright (c) 2023 Archibald Reiss Days 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 12 /