HISTORICAL RETROSPECTIVE AND PREVENTION FROM MIGRATION FLOWS AS A CONTEMPORARY SECURITY CHALLENGES FOR EUROPE
Migration is a global phenomenon that affects all countries in the world. One of the major migrations of the last century is the Great Atlantic Movement from 1820 year to 1980 year, in which peoples moved from Europe to North America. During this period, about 40 million people moved to America. Initially, they were inhabited from: Ireland, Netherlands, Germany and later from Africa. Migration in the new era began with the revolutions in the Arab world known as the "Arab Spring", from beginning of 2011 year and subsequently the Middle East wars: Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria. Among, most important migration routes were: Middle East-Asian route transiting through: Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, Hungary, Croatia and other European Union countries. This direction is particularly affected by military developments in Syria and Iraq. The second is the South African migrant route: Nigeria, Kenya, Sudan, Somalia, Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Mediterranean, Italy, France, Spain and other Western European countries. The migration is affecting the demographic structure of European countries, and with implementation of inadequate integration programs for migrants in European countries security challenges are rising. The migration, further jeopardized the security of European countries by infiltrating radical terrorist groups into the mass waves of people moving to Europe in order to carry out terrorist attacks.
In our paper we provide a detailed number of migrants who have transited through European countries from 2014 to February 2020. For the period from 2018 to February 2020, we provide a spreadsheet overview on country of origin for the migrants who have transited through European countries. From this, we can conclude that from 2014 to 18.02.2020 year the number of migrants who have transited through Europe increases or decreases depending on effective preventive measures of European countries' on a national and regional level. Conducting preventive measures for controlling the migration waves from European Commission and on a national level from European countries will be determined through statistical analysis using the scientific method Pearson correlation coefficient which will confirm or reject one of the paper hypothesis: Did the European countries have took effective preventive measures for controlling migrant waves which have transited through European countries? Finally, we will give a historical retrospective of migration flows from 2014 onwards in the context of: Why the migration is contemporary security threat for the European countries, if they don’t take effective and unified legal regulations and instruments, which will give an appropriate response to the second hypothesis of our paper.
Keywords: history, prevention, migration, security challenges, Europe
2. Andrej Iliev, Aleksandar Glavinov, Jovan Iliev. Republic of Slovenia and the migrant crisis:history and perspectives, Faculty for security in Skopje, 2019.
3. Vision Europe Summit. Improving the response to migration and refugee crisis in Europe, Lisbon, 2016.
4. Halsall Guy. Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376–568, Cambridge University Press,2008, 10-15.
5. The Life of Admiral Christopher Columbus by His Son Ferdinand. Translated by Keen, Benjamin. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 1978.
6. Witschi, N.S. Traces of Gold: California's Natural Resources and the Claim to Realism in Western American Literature. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2002.
7. Emanuela Roman. Mediterranean flows into Europe. Refuges or Migrants?, Journal of culture and society, 2015.
8. Migration after the Arab Spring, Philippe Fargues and Christine Fandrich, 2012.
9. Bonine, M. E., Amanat, A., & Gasper, M. E. (Eds.). (2012). Is There a Middle East? The Evolution of a Geopolitical Concept. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
10. Kamrava, M. (2013). The Modern Middle East: A Political History since the First World War (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.572-5900)
11. Wehrey, F., Kaye, D. D., Watkins, J., Martini, J., & Guffey, R. A. (2010). The Iraq Effect: The Middle East after the Iraq War. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
12. Christofer M. Blanchard. (January 28, 2009). Islam: Sunnis and Shiites.CRS Report for Congrees. Congressional Research Service.
13. Elizabeth Collet, Camille Le Coz. After the storm - Learning from EU response to the migration crisis, Migration policy institute, Europe, june 2018, 49-50.
14. Gelvin, J. L. (2012). The Arab Uprisings: What Everyone Needs to Know? New York: Oxford University Press.
15. Philippe Fargues. Christine Fandrich. (09.2012). Migration after the Arab Spring. European University Institute. Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies.
16. The global refugee crisis. (June 2015). A conspiracy of neglect. Amnesty International.
17. Haas, M. L., & Lesch, D. W. (Eds.). (2012). the Arab Spring: Change and Resistance in the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
18. Gelvin, J. L. (2012). The Arab Uprisings: What Everyone Needs to Know? New York: Oxford University Press.
19. Dr.Simon Adams. (March 2015). Failure to Protect: Syria and the UN Security Council. Occasional Paper Series No.5.Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect.
20. Roland Popp.(November 2012). The Syrian Civil War: Between escalation and intervention. CSS Analysis in Security Policy.No124. Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zurich.
21. Elizabeth Ferris. Kemal Kirisci. Salman Shaikh. (18.September 2013). Syrian Crisis: Massive Displacement, Dire Needs and Shortage of Solutions.
22. Gucturk, Y. (2015). War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity in Syria. Insight Turkey, 17(1).
23. Refuge&Hope in Time of ISIS: The Urgent Need for Protection, Humanitarian Support, and Durable Solutions in Turkey, Bulgaria, and Greece. (January 2015).
24. Report of the Migration and Refugee Services of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. (http://www.usccb.org/about/migration-policy/upload/Refuge-and-Hope-in-the-Time-of-ISIS.pdf)
25. Elizabeth Collett, Camille Le Coz. After the storm - Learning from the EU response to the migrant crisis, june 2018, Migration policy institute, Brussels.
26. Martina Smilevska, Emerging Challenges in Response to the Refugee Crisis The state of the Macedonian asylum system, MYLA, February 2015. Available at: http://myla.org.mk/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/2015-Emerging-Challenges-in-Response-to-theRefugee-Crisis-2015-1.pdf
27. David E.Bloom, David Canning, and Günther Fink.(January 2011).Implications of Population Aging for Economic Growth. PGDA Working Paper No.64.
28. Hala Kerbage, Ramzi Haddad. Lebanon drug situation and policy, Council of Europe, Brussels, 2014. https://rm.coe.int/drug-situation-and-policy-by-hala-kerbage-psychiatrist-at-hotel-dieu-d/168075f2a9
29. The public health dimension of the European migrant crisis. (January 2016). Briefing. European Parliament, 5-www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/ BRIE/2016/573908/ EPRS _BRI%282016%29573908_EN.pdf
30. Frontex at Glance. (2015). FRONTEX, the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union.
31. Marilyn Achiron. Nationality and Statelessness. A handbook for Parliamentarians, UNHCR, 2005.
32. Filippo Grandi - United Nations (UN) High Commissioner for Refugees. Managing the refugee and migrant crisis The role of governments, private sector and technology, Global crisis center, 2016.
33. Josi Seilonen. Fortress Europe – a brief history of the European migration and asylum policy, University of Helsinki, 2016.
Internet data portals for international migration:
2.) International organization for migration https://migrationdataportal.org/?i=stock_abs_&t=2017&cm49=807#
3.) EUROSTAT DATABASE https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database
5.) UN Operational portal for Refugee situation