NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA AND IT’S IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN SECURITY
National Security Strategy is a document of highest strategic importance in one state that defines core values, interests, challenges, risks and threats to national security, as well as the organization of the national security system and national security policy in order to secure and achieve national interests. The Republic of Serbia defined its strategic priorities for the first time when adopted the first National Security Strategy 2009, and updated them in the new National Security Strategy adopted in 2019. An important part of the first Strategy was the concept of human security, which was indication that the Republic of Serbia formally considered the needs and values of an individual on an equal footing with the values of the state. This Strategy was deemed to be an expression of determination of the Republic of Serbia to create conditions for improving human security in economic, health, political and other aspects and through transparency, rule of law and responsibility. However, the new Strategy does not explicitly mention human security as a specific part of the integral concept of national security. Furthermore, it introduces several novelties that are in contrast with the prevailed human-centric mission of the previous strategy, and these novelties are focused towards territorial integrity, sovereignty and other state-centric issues. Bearing this in mind, questions arising are: why this strategic turn was made and what are to be the implications of this change for human security. The main hypothesis is that the strategic turn to state-centrism instead of the human-centric approach promoted by the previous National Security Strategy was made because it corresponds to the global trend of revival of nationalism and sovereignty. However, this indisputably leaves room for criticism because people are the most important factor in the equation of integral national security and disregarding them in national security strategies and policies can be problematized on multiple levels.
Benveniste, A., Lazaridis, G., & Puurunen, H. (2017). Populist othering and Islamophobia. In: G. Lazaridis and G. Campani (eds.). Understanding the Populist Shift: Othering in a Europe in crisis (pp. 50–69), London and New York: Rourledge.
Centre for Migration Studies (2017). President Trump’s Executive Orders on Immigration and Refugees. Accesssed August 1 2020. https://cmsny.org/trumps-executive-orders-immigration-refugees/.
Enyedi, Z. (2020). Right-wing authoritarian innovations in Central and Eastern Europe, East European Politics, DOI: 10.1080/21599165.2020.1787162.
Estevens J. (2018). Migration crisis in the EU: developing a framework for analysis of national security and defence strategies, Comparative Migration Studies 6(28), doi: 10.1186/s40878-018-0093-3.
European Security Strategy: A Secure Europe in a Better World (2003). Council of the European Union. Doi. 10.2860/1402.
Gilmour S. P, Brown M. D., Lindsay T. G., Beswick H. P, MacNee W, Donaldson K. (1996). Adverse health effects of PM10 particles: involvement of iron in generation of hydroxyl radical. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53, 817–822. doi. 10.1136/oem.53.12.817.
Gorospe, P. (2018). Human Security as the Philippines’ National Security Strategy, The Asia Dialogue. Nottingham: University of Nottingham, Asia Research Institute, accessed July 10, 2020. https://theasiadialogue.com/2018/03/28/a-grand-strategy-for-the-philippines-human-security-as-the-national-security-strategy/.
Grabbe, H., Groot, N. (2014). Populism in the European Parliament: What Implications for the Open Society?, The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs, 49(4), 33–46, DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2014.961768
Greenhill, K. (2016). Open Arms Behind Barred Doors: Fear, Hypocrisy and Policy Schizophrenia in the European Migration Crisis. European Law Journal, 22 (3), 317–332.
Gregoratti C. (2007). Human Security. In: M. Bevir(ed), Encyclopedia of Governance (1st ed., pp. 428–432), London: SAGE.
Kaldor, M, Martin M. & Selchow S. (2008). Human Security: A European Strategic Narrative. International Policy Analysis. Bonn: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.
Lochocki, T. (2018). The Rise of Populism in Western Europe: A Media Analysis on Failed Political Messaging. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-62855-4
Maguire, M. (2015). Migrants in the Realm of Experts: The Migration-Crime-Terrorist Nexus after 9/11. In: G. Lazaridis and K. Wadia (eds.), The Securitisation of Migration in the EU: Debates since 9/11 (pp. 62–87), Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
National Security Strategies: Towards a New Generation, DCAF: Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance, accessed June 20, 2020. https://issat.dcaf.ch/ser/Learn/SSR-in-Practice/Thematics-in-Practice/National-Security-Strategies.
National Security Strategy of the Republic of Serbia (2009). Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 88.
National Security Strategy of the Republic of Serbia (2019). Official Gazette Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 94.
Nyberg Sørensen N, Kleist N, Lucht H (2017). Europe and the refugee situation: Human Security Implications, DIIS REPORT 03, Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.
Report on the state of the environment in the Republic of Serbia (2019). Belgrade: Ministry of Environmental Protection - Environmental Protection Agency.
Scott, E. (2019). Trump’s most insulting — and violent — language is often reserved for immigrants, The Washington Post. Accessed July 30 2020. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/10/02/trumps-most-insulting-violent-language-is-often-reserved-immigrants/.
SHARE Foundation, “Thousands of Cameras” - a citizen response to mass biometric surveillance, accessed July 23 2020. https://privacyinternational.org/case-study/3967/thousands-cameras-citizen-response-mass-biometric-surveillance.
Shared Vision, Common Action - A Stronger Europe: A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy (2016). Accessed July 22 2020. https://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/top_stories/pdf/eugs_review_web.pdf.
Stojarová, V. (2018). Populist, Radical and Extremist Political Parties in Visegrad countries vis à vis the migration crisis. In the name of the people and the nation in Central Europe, Open Political Science, 1, 32–45.
Thakur, R. (2004). A Political Worldview. Security Dialogue, 35(3), 347–348. Doi: 10.1177/096701060403500307.
Toscano, E. (2015). The Rise of Italian Populism and ‘Fascism of the Third Millennium’ in the Age of Migration and Security. In: G. Lazaridis and K. Wadia (eds.). The Securitisation of Migration in the EU: Debates since 9/11 (pp. 167–183), Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Trobbiani, R. (2013). How Should National Security and Human Security Relate to Each Other?, E-International Relations, accessed on June 28, 2020. https://www.e-ir.info/2013/04/26/how-should-national-security-and-human-security-relate-to-each-other/.
Vietti, F., Scribner, T. (2013). Human Insecurity: Understanding International Migration from a Human Security Perspective. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 1(1), 17–31.
Wodak R., Boukala S. (2015). European identities and the revival of nationalism in the European Union: A discourse historical approach, Journal of Language and Politics, 14(1), 87–109. Doi: 10.1075/jlp.14.1.05wod.