• Milan Djordje Miljković University of Defense
Keywords: Keywords: information, information environment, information warfare, fog of war.


The increased number of factors and participants in a conflict has additionally complicated the information environment where these conflicts occur, due to the mass application of information and communication technology (ITC), as well as to global networking that substantially affected the strategic environment where modern conflicts are actually taking place.


Numerous features characterize the complex information environment where contemporary conflicts take place, including: a) the lack of information – regarded as an obvious source of omissions and failures in conflict management in the classical theory; b) too much information – viewed by some theorists as a major problem in relation to the lack of information; and c) the deception – considered by the third group of security theorists to be a bigger problem than the one of separating the relevant signals coming from the "sea of noise".


The complexity of the field of information makes taking the right decisions in conducting the conflict even more difficult and confirms the legitimacy of Clausewitz's thesis, put long time ago, that "much of the information obtained in the war is contradictory, even more false, and by far the most suspicious." In reducing the uncertainty of the conflict, the experience of the people who are engaged in leading the conflict, who assess, analyze and decide on the engagement of forces in the war, plays a crucial role.


1. Berzins, J. (2015). A New Generation of Warfare, Per Concordiam 6, no. 3. Accessed on March 13, 2018,
2. Echevarria, A. (1997). Dynamic Inter-Dimensionality: A Revolution in Military.
Joint Force Quarterly, Accessed on July 5, 2020.
3. Field Manual 100-6. (1996). Information operations, Department of the Army, Washington, DC.
4. Field Manual FM -105. (1993). Department of the Army, Washington, DC.
5. Field Manual FM-106. (1996). Department of the Army, Washington, DC.
6. Harshberger E. & Ochmanek D. (1999), Information and Warfare: New Opportunities for U.S. military forces“. Strategic Appraisal: The Changing Role of Information in Warfare. RAND, Accessed on April 11, 2020.
7. Lidl, H. (1985). Mač i pero, Beograd, Vojnoizdavački Zavod.
8. Moliner, J L. (1998). Guerre de l'information: le concept de tout. L’Armement, 60, XII/1997– I/1998, Paris.
9. Joint Pub 3-13 (1998). Joint Doctrine for Information Operations, US Army Joint Chiefs of Staff..
10. Joint Pub 3-54 (1997). Joint Doctrine for Operations Security, US Army Joint Chiefs of Staff.
11. Kam, E. (1989). Surprise Attack, Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
12. Libicki, M. & Shapiro, J. (1999). The Changing Role of Information in Warfare, RAND, Accessed on July 15, 2020.
13. Nicholls, D. & Tagarev, T. (1994) What Does Chaos Theory Mean for Warfare?. Aerospace Power, Journal.
14. Osinga, F. (2005). Science, Strategy and War The Strategic Theory of John Boyd. Accessed on May 13, 2020.
15. Chekinov, S. & , Bogdanov S. (2013). The Nature and Content of a New-Generation War, Voyenna mysl, No. 4.,
16. Shanon C.E. & Weaver W. (1964), The Mathematics Theory of Communication, The University of Illinois Press Urbana.
17. Watts, B. D. (2004). Clausewitzian Friction and Future War. Revised Edition. Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, Washington DC. Accessed on May 13.
18. Karen, S. W. (1999), Toward a Nonlinear Theory of War:, Changing the Root, Metaphor. National War College. Accessed on Jun 13.
19. Lind, W. & Gregory Т. (2015) 4th Generation Warfare Handbook, Castalia House, Kouvola, Finland.
20. Wohlstetter, R. (1962). Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision, Stanford University Press.
21. Klauzevic, К. (1951). О ratu, Vojno delo, Beograd.
22. Мијалковић, С. (2010). Корелација информационе и националне безбедности“, Zbornik Ziteh 2010, Београд. Accessed on July 15, 2020.,%20Korelacija%20informacione%20i%20nacionalne%20bezbednosti.pdf
23. Миљковић, М. & Путник, Н. (2016). Активности савремених обавештајних служби у сајбер простору“, Војно дело 7/2016, Београд.
24. Миљковић, М. (2016). Посебност информационих операција у раду савремених обавештајних служби, докторска дисертација, Факултет безбедности, Београд.
25. Тuđman, М. (2003). Informacijska znanost: Znanost o obavijestima, pogrešnim obavijestima i protuobavijestima. Zavod za informacijske studije, Filozofski fakultet, Zagreb.
26. Синковски, С. (2005). Информациона безбедност – компонента националне безбедности“, Војно дело, 2/2005. Београд,
27. Sun Tzu (2009), Umeće ratovanja, Beograd: Babun.