MODELS OF SCHOOL-BASED PREVENTION POLICIES FOR REDUCING SCHOOL VIOLENCE
Keywords:models, school violence, prevention, children
We experience the presence of violence as a reality, and we feel it even more by showing violence on television as a "normal" part of our daily lives. Garbarino argues that millions of children and adolescents around the world grow up surrounded by violence (Dogutas, 2011, p. 2), and even more frightening is the fact that it occurs in places that are perceived as safe, such as family and school.
School violence as a subject of public discussion has become dominant in the last few decades in the world (Show, 2004, p. 94) although this does not mean that it is a new problem in the societies. In fact, it is believed that since there are schoolyards, there are bullies in the school, there are fights between children, there are cases related to extortion of money or the children are experiencing harassment from other children. But dilemmas over whether any form of school violence is a normal part of every student's childhood are slowly disappearing, and research is focusing on exploring the many different aspects of school violence. In addition to the analysis of the phenomenological and etiological characteristics of school violence, an even more important aspect of the analysis is which prevention policies, programs and measures are most effective in preventing or reducing it.
Therefore, the subject of this paper are the models of school-based preventive policies and programs which have aim to prevent the school violence, with purpose to determine their effectiveness or their impact in terms of developing a positive child behavior and reducing the violence in schools. Through the analysis of the literature, it can be noticed that in different countries and in different social contexts, different types of school-based prevention policies and programs that are applied show different results. Hence, the solutions to how to deal with school violence are very diverse, ranging from classroom conflict management to the development of national programs, from the creation of experimental schools to school-police-legal partnership teams. Certain preventive policies have aim to enact more rules, to tighten the sanctions (zero tolerance policy) (Carra, 2009, p. 105), to strengthen school safety through the involvement of the police and other security measures and some of the policies are focused on learning socio-emotional skills or they are based on principles of the restorative discipline. Therefore, from a scientific and applicative point of view, it is necessary to be identified the positive aspects of different policies and programs and to apply them appropriately to prevent or reduce certain types of violence in a certain social context.
2. Carra, C. (2009). European trends in research into violence and deviance in schools: achievements, problems, and outlook. (C. Carra, & M. E. Hedibel, Eds.) International Journal on Violence and Schools, 10(VIOLENCES IN SCHOOLS: EUROPEAN TRENDS IN RESEARCH), 97-110.
3. Dogutas, A. (2011). School violence in Turkey, Multiple perspectives in multiple settings. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from http://www.kent.edu/ehhs/oaa/dissertations/upload/dogutas-abstract-8-26-11-2.pdf
4. Domitrovich, C. E., Bradshaw, C. P., Greenberg, M. T., Embry, D., Poduska, J. M., & Ialongo, N. S. (2010 , January). Integrated models of school-based prevention: Logic and theory. Psychol Sch., 47(1), 71–88. doi:10.1002/pits.20452
5. Flaherty, L. T. (2001). School violence : assessment, management, prevention. In M. Shafii, & S. L. Shafii (Eds.), School violence : assessment, management, prevention (pp. 25-52). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
6. Jones, S. M., & Bouffard, S. М. (2012). Social and Emotional Learning in Schools. Society for Research in Child Developmenet.
7. Kelker, K. A. (2003). Resolving Conflicts in Schools: An Educational Approach to Violence Prevention. In M. S. Fishbaugh, G. Schroth, & T. R. Berkeley (Eds.), Ensuring safe school environments : exploring issues, seeking solution (pp. 69-88). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
8. Meyer, L. H., & Evans, I. M. (2012). The School Leader's Guide to Restorative School Discipline. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.
9. Restorative justice or Restorative practicies. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2013, from http://www.fixschooldiscipline.org/toolkit/educators/restorative/
10. Show, M. (2004). Comprahenzive approches to school safety and security: an international view. In OECD, School safety and Security- Lessons in Dangers (pp. 92-107). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
11. Skiba, R., Boone, K., Fantanini, A., Wu, T., Strussell, A., & Peterson, R. (2011, September 15). Preventing School Violence: A Practical Guide to Comprehensive Planning. E SAFE AND RESPONSIVE SCHOOLS PROJECT AT THE INDIANA EDUCATION POLICY CENTER.
12. Swearer, S. M., & Espelage, D. L. (2004). Introduction: A Social-Ecological Framework of Bullying Among Youth. In D. L. Espelage, & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in American schools : a social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention (pp. 1-12). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.
13. Tutty, L., Bradshaw, C., Thurston, W., Ashley, B., Marshall, P., Tunstall, L., . . . Nixon, K. (2005). School based violence prevention programs: Preventing violence against children and Youth.
14. Twemlow, S.W and Sacco, F.C. (2008). Why school antibullying programs don’t work. Maryland: The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.
15. Volokh, A., & Snell, L. (1998). School Violence Prevention: Strategies to Keep Schools Safe. Policy Study.
16. World Health Organization. (2019). School-based violence prevention: a practical handbook. World Health Organization.