THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT DURING THE COVID - 19 PANDEMIC

  • Ana Čović Institute of Comparative Law
  • Oliver Nikolić
Keywords: COVID - 19, freedom of movement, human rights, state of emergency, case law, Constitutional Court , European Court of Human Rights.

Abstract

We have entered the second year of a global pandemic in the world, which has resulted in the adoption of various measures that limited certain human rights, especially freedom of movement. This limitation was felt by everyone - employees, children, and especially people older than 65. It therefore seems necessary to try to answer the question of where the limits of restrictions on human rights and freedom of movement are during a pandemic, what are the differences in restrictions imposed by some states, and what is the content of court decisions in situations where this issue is a subject to court proceedings. Also, the paper will analyze the latest judgment of the European Court of Human Rights regarding the protection of freedom of movement during the pandemic in the case of Terheş v. Romania.

References

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LIST OF REGULATIONS AND ACTS
1. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/ legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A12012P%2FTXT
2. Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, (Official Gazette of RS, no 98/2006).
3. Criminal Code, Official Gazette of RS, no. 85/2005, 88/2005 - corrected, 107/2005, 72/2009,
111/2009, 121/2012, 104/2013, 108/2014, 94/2016 and 35/2019.
4. Decree on Emergency Measures (Official Gazette of RS, No. 31 / 2020-3 of March 16, 2020).
5. Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, (2004, 29 April). Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32004L0038
6. The European Convention on Human Rights, 1950, Council of Europe. Available at https:// www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf
7. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966, the United Nations General Assembly. Available at https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx
8. Order on Restriction and Prohibition of Movement of Persons on the Territory of the Republic of Serbia (Official Gazette of RS, No. 34/2020, 39/2020, 40/2020, 46/2020 and 50/2020).
9. Treaty on European Union. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/? uri=celex%3A12012M%2FTXT
10. Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/ LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:12012E/TXT:en:PDF
11. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). United Nations General Assembly.
COURT DECISIONS
1. Terheş v. Romania Aapplication (No. 49933/20). Available at https://www.juridice.ro/ wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Decision-Terhes-v.-Romania-lockdown-ordered-by-the- authorities-to-tackle-the-COVID-19-pandemic-could-not-be-equated-with-house-arrest.pdf
2. Decision on Rejecting the Initiative of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Serbia, (2020, May 22) No. IУо-42/2020. (Official Gazette of RS, No.77/2020). Available at http://www.ustavni.sud.rs/page/predmet/sr-Latn-CS/16219/?NOLAYOUT=1
3. Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Serbia (2020, September 17). No. IУо-45/2020, (Official Gazette of RS, No. 126/2020). https://www.propisi.net/odluka-ustavnog-suda-rs-broj-iuo-45-2020/
4. Decision of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina of 22 April 2020, no.
AP-1217/20 (Official Gazette of BiH, No. 26/20). http://sluzbenilist.ba/page/akt/ 7XvnB8uDg48=
5. Decision of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, No. AP-3683/20 of 22 December 2020, (Official Gazette of BIH, No. 85/2020). Available at http://sluzbenilist.ba/page/ akt/4EeZhRWYGo0=

INTERNET SOURCES
1. BBC News. (2021, July 14) Covid: Spain’s Top Court Rules Lockdown Unconstitutional. Available at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-57838615
2. Belgrade Centre for Human Rights. (2020, May 7). Restriction of Freedom of Movement of Serbian Citizens during the COVID-19 Virus Pandemic one of the Most Drastic in Europe. Available at http://www.bgcentar.org.rs/ogranicenje-slobode-kretanja-gradana- srbije-za-vreme-pandemije-virusa-covid-19-jedno-od-najdrasticnijih-u-evropi/
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Published
2021-11-26
Section
Social, Economic and Political Flows of Crime