THE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES IN ACHIEVING REAL TIME SITUATIONAL AWARENESS DURING POLICE INTERVENTION

  • Nenad Milić KPU
  • Dragan Milidragović
Keywords: police intervention, decision making, situational awareness, body-worn cameras, UAVs, GIS

Abstract

Abstract: Decision-making and discretion in police interventions should be based on relevant and objective information. Complexity, level of risk, unpredictability, and uncertainty are some of the features of police interventions in which police officers need to decide how to act in a few seconds. In limited timeframe, the police officer should find and select all available information relevant to make the decision. Decision-making gets complicated and more challenging in police interventions where there is a risk of police officers getting injured and police use of force. The psychological pressure such situations create can negatively affect officers’ situation awareness or their ability to observe and choose among pieces of information essential for decision making. Consequently, relevant information may not reach the police managers who are expected to react to every change in the situation with an adequate decision.

The problem of loss or lack of situational awareness in complex and risky police interventions has long been noticed. In order to maintain situational awareness during interventions and timely get the necessary information, body-worn cameras, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for live coverage of events from the police intervention scene and geographic information systems (GIS) to integrate data from the field could be used. These technologies allow managers in police headquarters to follow all events during the police intervention "live", to be familiar the deployment and status of engaged resources at all times, notice problems, and accordingly make decisions even before receiving (or in case of delay) information via the radio communication system. Having in mind the importance of situational awareness in complex and risky interventions for decision making, the paper points to the possibilities of using body-worn cameras, UAVs, and GIS to ensure situational awareness during interventions.

Keywords: police intervention, decision making, situational awareness, body-worn cameras, UAVs, GIS.

References

1. Bertilsson, J., Niehorster, D.C., Fredriksson, P.J., Dahl, M., Granér, S., Fredriksson,O., Mårtensson, J.M., Magnusson, M., PA Fransson, P. A & Nyström M. (2020). Towards systematic and objective evaluation of police officer performance in stressful situations, Police Practice and Research, 21 (6): 655-669.
2. Blitz, M. J. (2015). Police Body-Worn Cameras: Evidentiary Benefits and Privacy Threats.
Washingon, DC: American Constitution Society.
3.Endsley, M.R. & Kiris, E.O. (1995). The Out-of-the-Loop Performance Problem and Level of Control in Automation. Downloaded June 3, 2021., https://pinopsida.com/misc/endsley1995.pdf
4. Epli, F., Ribo, O. & Samerfild, E. (2012). Proces donošenja odluka u policiji. Beograd: Kriminalističko-policijska akademija.
5. Klein, G. (2000). Analysis of situation awareness from critical incident reports. In M. R. Endsley & D.J. Garland.
6. Matthews, M. D., Strater, L. D., & Endsley, M. R. (2004). Situation awareness requirements for infantry platoon leaders. Military Psychology, 16, 149–161.
7. Мilic, N., Milidragovic, D. (2019). The possibilities and challenges of UAV implementation in serbian police. U: Zbornik radova: „Dani Arčiblada Rajsa“, Кriminalističko-policijski univerzitet, Beograd, str. 45-58.
8. Milojković, B. (2015). Optimizacija modela malih bespilotnih letelica za potrebe policije. Bezbednost, 57 (3): 5-27.
9. Shinnamon, D. L. & Cowell, B. M. (2019). Building and managing a successful public safety UAS program: Practical guidance and lessons learned from the early adopters. National Police Foundation. Washington, DC
10.Sousa, W. H., Miethe, T. D. & Sakiyama, M. (2015). Body Worn Cameras on Police: Results
from a National Survey of Public Attitudes. Research in Brief. Center for Crime and Justice
Policy. Downloaded June 5, 2021.,
https://jobs.unlv.edu/sites/default/files/page_files/27/BodyWornCameras.pdf
11. Stanton, N. A.; Chambers, P. R. G. & Piggott, J. (2001) Situational awareness and safety. Safety Science, 39. 189-204. Downloaded Маy 22, 2021., https://bura.brunel.ac.uk/bitstream/2438/1804/1/Situation_awareness_and_safety_Stanton_et_al.pdf
12. Verhage, A., Noppe, J., Feys, Y & Ledegen E.(2018). Force, stress and decision making within the Belgian police. The impact of stressful situations on police decision making. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 33, p.345–357.
Published
2021-11-26
Section
Police Organization – Structure and Functioning