THE ROLE OF CBRN LIVE AGENT TRAINING IN EDUCATION OF FIRST RESPONDERS
Keywords:CBRN threats, CBRN agent training, security, first responders
In the modern security architecture, CBRN threats represent one of the most dangerous and devastating threats with immediate and prolonged affects both to people and the environment with additional security and economic consequences. The prompt and professional response has a key role in the management of the crisis caused by CBRN agents. That is why the first responders need to be trained and qualified individuals with special equipment and working methods. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of a holistic approach in training, through the integral CBRN activities that include chemical, biological, and radiological field detection and decontamination procedures, medical response and personal protection, sampling, and laboratory analytical methods as well as adequate security procedures and protocols.
Key words: CBRN threats, CBRN agent training, security, first responders
2. Bhardwaj, J. R. (2010). Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear disaster management. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences. 2(3), pp. 157-158.
3. Bland, S.A. (2014) Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Casualty Management Principles. In: Ryan J. et al. (eds) Conflict and Catastrophe Medicine. London: Springer.
4. Blum, M., Richasdt, A., Kehke, K. (2013). CBRN Risk Management – Are We Prepared to Respond?. Richardt A. et all. (Eds.) CBRN Protection - Managing the Threat of Chemical, Biological, Radioactive and Nuclear Weapons (433-476). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag & Co. KGaA.
5. Calder, A., & Bland, S. (2015). Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear considerations in a major incident. Surgery (Oxford, Oxfordshire), 33(9), 442–448.
6. Carter, H., Drury, J., & Amlôt, R. (2020). Recommendations for improving public engagement with pre-incident information materials for initial response to a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) incident: a systematic review. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 101796.
7. Coughlin, R.J, et al. (1992) The Impact of Toxic Agent Training on Combat Readiness. U.S. Army Chemical School. Fort McClellan, AL, USA.
8. Galatas, I. (2020). Prevention of CBRN Materials and Substances Getting into the Hands of Terrorists. In: Schmid, A. (ed.). Handbook of Terrorism Prevention and Preparedness (pp. 555-587).The Hague:The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism.
9. NATO Civil Emergency Planning Civil Protection Group (2014). Guidelines for First Responders to a CBRN Incident.
10. International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC (2020). Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Response –Introductory guidance, E-book.
11. Hoffman, F. G. (2010). “Hybrid Threats”: Neither Omnipotent Nor Unbeatable. Orbis, 54(3), 441–455.
12. Joint Publication 3-41 (2016). Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Response.
13. Kaszeta, D. (2013). CBRN and Hazmat Incidents at Major Public Events – Planning and Response. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Publication.
14. Lambakis S. (2005). Reconsidering Asymmetric Warfare. Joint Forces Quarterly, pp. 102-108.
15. Lele, A. (2014). Asymmetric Warfare: A State Vs Non-State Conflict. OASIS, 20, pp. 97-111.
16. Lemyre, L., Clément, M., Corneil, W., Craig, L., Boutette, P., ... & Krewski,D. (2005). A psychosocial risk assessment and management framework to enhance response to CBRN terrorism threats and attacks. Biosecurity and bioterrorism: Biodefense strategy, practice, and science, 3(4), 316-330.
17. NATO Civil Emergency Planning Civil Protection Group (2014). Guidelines for First Responders to a CBRN Incident.
18. Novossiolova, T., Martellin, M. (2021). Effective and Comprehensive CBRN Security Risk Management in the 21st Century. Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Papers. No. 75.
19. Pike, S. (2020). Enhancing the simulation of real-life CBRN threats, CBRN/HazMat Training Blog, Argon Electronics, Luton, published online.
20. Stolar, A. (2012) Live CBRN agent training for responders as a key role in a safe crisis recovery, in: Correlation Between Human Factors and the Prevention of Disasters, IOS Press p.58-66
21. Wheeler, E. (2011). Security Risk Management: Building an Information Security Risk Management Program from the Ground Up. Amsterdam, Boston: Elsevier.