BULK SURVEILLANCE BETWEEN NATIONAL SECURITY AND RIGHT TO PRIVACY
Abstract. An author deals with the bulk surveillance and its relationship with right to privacy. Intensive ICT development enables various modern techniques and methods of crime investigation but also results in some new types of criminal offences that could be committed using ICT. Expansion of the fundamental rights and their protection, especially in Europe, raised global awareness about right to privacy and the need to protect it. Having that in mind it seems that the main question that should be answered by legislator is: Where is the borderline between the right to privacy and the public interest to investigate or prevent crime and collect evidence. European Court of Human Rights deeply examined this issue and developed criteria earlier established in famous judgement in a case Weber and Saravia. States enjoyed a wide margin of appreciation in deciding what type of interception regime was necessary to protect national security, but considered that the discretion afforded to states in operating an interception regime would necessarily be narrower. The ECtHR had identified six “minimum safeguards” which should be set out in law to avoid abuses of power: the nature of offences which may give rise to an interception order, a definition of the categories of people liable to have their communications intercepted, a limit on the duration of interception, the procedure to be followed for examining, using and storing the data obtained, the precautions to be taken when communicating the data to other parties, and the circumstances in which intercepted data may or must be erased or destroyed. The author in this work explains international legal instrument that authorize surveillance of communication as well as its boundaries.
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