• Bobana Berjan Bačvarević Alfa BK University, Belgrade
  • Dejan Rančić Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Niš
  • Vladan Borović Ministry of Interior, Republic of Serbia


management, sport, 3D electronic referee systems, E-fraud, malpractice.



Technologically advanced systems for electronic refereeing decisions in sport have a major use and impact on the game in the 21st century. The purpose of this paper is to discover potential malpractice in the use of these electronic systems, mark the points of potential malpractice and give recommendations on lowering the damage done by tampering the results.


This scientific paper describes a unique approach in the management and prevention of intentional and unintentional, human made errors in the process, with stated technical errors, psychological approach, existing solutions review, given examples and analysis. The authors described a developed, original 3D system used in tennis.


The authors of this paper found the weak points in the electronic system, which can easily be used to manipulate and tamper the results. Malpractice is highly possible to occur, in various steps of the electronic referee process.


This research paper explains the weak points of the system convenient to fraud, to the general public, especially the spectators and TV audience, that’s not covered in world media. Recommendations are given to minimize the possibility of malpractice. The authors proposed a new, original management algorithm and a malpractice prevention model.


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Natural and Applied Sciences in Forensics, Cybercrime and Security